Eight papers met the inclusion criteria, describing research on a total of eight ethno-cultural assessment tools/models. While many ethno-cultural assessment tools exist to guide nursing practice, few are informed by research perspectives.
An increased focus on the efficiency and effectiveness of health services, patient safety, and risk management, means that provision of culturally responsive and competent health services will inevitably become paramount. Migration to high-income developed nation states is driven by a number of factors including poverty, war with the transgression of human rights, and the consequences of colonialism.
Moreover, it is incumbent on nurses ethically, morally and via our professional codes of practice to be aware of and sensitive to ethno-cultural diversity in our patient and client populations.
Our request from the health care unit called for the identification of a cultural assessment tool; however, within nursing knowledge and theory this type of assessment tool is more commonly referred to as a model of transcultural nursing.
Health care units in Canada do not collect ethnicity data on admission; therefore, requests for translation are often used as a proxy measure to indicate the scale of ethno-cultural diversity in a health care unit.
The health care unit that identified the need for this review evidenced that, in the last five years, their daily log sheet showed on average about 20 requests per day for language interpretation services, covering eight to ten languages.
Data was retrieved from a wide variety of sources, including key electronic bibliographic databases covering research in biomedical fields, nursing and allied health, and culture, e.g.
Cultural assessment models and tools are merely vehicles that enable nurses to deliver effective transcultural nursing care.In consideration of global migration, it is likely that this scenario is common.The aim of our review was that of an integrative approach, thereby to scope out and map the current state of knowledge on the topic rather than to assess or test the validity of any given tool .She criticizes Leininger's model for its assumption that care and services will be improved by knowledge of different cultures.There is a need to recognize "], p.568] The structural and political aspects within inequality of minority ethnic people are not given primacy within this culturalist approach; moreover, the approach tends to promote culture in a negative manner with potential contribution towards stereotypical attitudes and propagating power unbalances  provides more reflection on the criticism of Leininger's work as minimizing the roles of racism and social inequality in the health status of minority ethnic groups.