There is thus an urgent need for well-dated high-resolution records of millennial-timescale climatic variability at midlatitudes.Although many speleothems, marine, and lake sediment records are available in the Mediterranean domain (9–11), continental regions of Northern Europe are not adequately documented, and very few radiometric ages are available for records north of 45° N.The best loess sequences, owing to their high sedimentation rate that can reach 0.5–2 m/ka during the 35- to 17-ka time interval (13, 14), are indeed well-suited to study millennial-timescale environmental changes.High-resolution stratigraphy, paleopedology, grain size, magnetic properties, malacology, and organic and isotopic geochemistry can be used to reconstruct rapid variations of aeolian dynamics, relative temperatures, paleoprecipitation, and vegetation cover during the Last Glacial (15).As our polling has found over the years, Americans and Europeans often have different perspectives on individualism, the role of government, free expression, religion and morality.with the statement “Success in life is pretty much determined by forces outside our control,” a higher percentage than in any of the European nations polled.
1) are the most widespread sedimentary archive available for the detailed study of Last Glacial climatic and environmental changes in continental Europe (12).
However, the limited precision and accuracy of luminescence dating methods commonly used in loess deposits preclude exact correlations of paleosol horizons with Greenland interstadials.
To overcome this problem, a radiocarbon dating protocol has been developed to date earthworm calcite granules from the reference loess sequence of Nussloch (Germany).
On the European continent, such chronologies are only available for several Last Glacial pollen and rare speleothem archives principally located in the Mediterranean domain.
Farther north, in continental lowlands, numerous high-resolution records of loess and paleosols sequences show a consistent environmental response to stadial–interstadial cycles.