In addition, Mannheim's SAP Arena is not only the home of the German ice hockey record champions the Adler Mannheim, but also the well-known handball team, the Rhein-Neckar Löwen. Mannheim is the starting and finishing point of the Bertha Benz Memorial Route.According to the Forbes magazine, Mannheim is known for its exceptional inventive power and was ranked 11th among the Top 15 of the most inventive cities worldwide. The name of the city was first recorded as Mannenheim in a legal transaction in 766, surviving in a twelfth-century copy in the Codex Laureshamensis from Lorsch Abbey.Influenced by the economic rise of the middle class, another golden age of Mannheim gradually began.In the March Revolution of 1848, the city was a centre for political and revolutionary activity.Mannheim is downstream along the Neckar from the city of Heidelberg.Mannheim is unusual among German cities in that its streets and avenues are laid out in a grid pattern, leading to its nickname "die Quadratestadt" ("The City of Squares").The name is interpreted as "the home of Manno", a short form of a Germanic name such as Hartmann or Hermann.Mannheim remained a mere village throughout the Middle Ages.
The city is home to major corporations including Daimler, John Deere, Caterpillar, ABB, Fuchs Petrolub, IBM, Roche, Reckitt Benckiser, Unilever, Phoenix Group, Siemens, and several other well-known companies. The civic symbol of Mannheim is der Wasserturm, a Romanesque water tower completed in 1886 that rises to 60 metres (200 feet) above the highest point of the art nouveau area Friedrichsplatz.
After the rebuilding of Mannheim that began in 1698, the capital of the Electorate of the Palatinate was moved from Heidelberg to Mannheim in 1720 when Karl III Philip, Elector Palatine began construction of Mannheim Palace and the Jesuit Church; they were completed in 1760.
During the eighteenth century, Mannheim was the home of the "Mannheim School" of classical music composers.
About two kilometres (one point two miles) below the town the Russian Army crossed the Rhine in 1813. In 1819, August von Kotzebue was assassinated in Mannheim.
The climate crisis of 1816-17 caused famine and the death of many horses in Mannheim. Infrastructure improvements included the establishment of Rhine Harbour in 1828 and construction of the first Baden railway, which opened from Mannheim to Heidelberg in 1840.